Participants were trained to perform a multitasking task involving prioritizing the sorting of a set of objects while frequently being interrupted by new objects to sort. After training, during an fMRI session, participants performed both the original task and a version of the task in which the function of a key part of the interface was modified. Analysis focused on the cognitive control network, a set of regions that decrease in activity with increasing levels of task experience. The functional connectivity of the anterior insula with the other regions of the control net work predicted the degree to which participants successfully adapted to this modified task better than other individual difference variables collected. The anterior insula is thought to be part of a salience network, and this salience network may help to inhibit old rules of the task set that must be replaced by new rules.