Differences in Interactional Attitudes in Second Language Conversations: From the Perspective of Expertise


We examined the effects of participants’ linguistic expertise on their communicative behaviors and their interactional attitudes in conversations in their second language. Quantitative analyses of eye-gazes during utterances showed that the speakers with lower linguistic expertise were observed more by the listeners in the second language conversations, whereas, the listeners' expertise level did not affect the amount of their gazes to the speakers. The analyses of a questionnaire suggested that the participants with lower expertise were not conscious of their own gazing activities; they self-evaluated the amount of their gazes to the speakers' eyes much lower in conversations in their second language than those in their native language. The participants with lower expertise evaluated the pressure they felt higher than those with higher expertise. It is likely that they were too occupied with conducting conversations to maintain enough control over their interaction activities.

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