How learners use feedback information: Effects of social comparative information and achievement goals


The present study investigated how learners use feedback information on their test results. We also examined the effects of the type of feedback and learners’ achievement goals on the manner in which feedback information was reviewed. In an experimental study (N = 42 undergraduate and graduate students), we tracked eye movements of the participants while they took a critical thinking test and received their test results. The results showed that most participants checked feedback for incorrectly-answered questions but not for correctly-answered questions. This suggests that learners do not use feedback information to judge the adequacy of the process of solving. In addition, these tendencies were not different between feedback conditions. Furthermore, participants’ achievement goals predicted learners’ review activities. Specifically, learners with higher mastery goals tended to check feedback for correctly-answered questions. Therefore, fostering the pursuit of mastery goals may prompt learners to use feedback information to enhance their comprehension.

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