Learning How To Throw Darts: The Effect Of Modeling Type And Reflection On Dart-Throwing Skills


In this study we investigate the effect of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a coping model were expected to surpass participants observing a mastery model who in turn were expected to outperform participants who learned without a model. Reflection was hypothesized to have a positive effect. Ninety undergraduate students were tested three times on dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-reaction scores. Contrary to what was expected, we found no main effects of modeling type and reflection. No interaction effects were found either. There was an effect of trial, indicating that participants improved dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-reaction scores over time. Furthermore, self-efficacy beliefs and dart-throwing skill were highly correlated. Our results suggest that learners do not benefit from observing a model and reflecting, but practice makes perfect.

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