The Interplay Between Self-evaluation, Goal Orientation, and Self-efficacy on Performance and Learning


Objective Self-awareness Theory (Duval & Wicklund, 1972) proposes that self-evaluation increases an individual’s awareness of any discrepancy between their current performance and an internal goal. In the current study we prompted self-evaluation throughout an intelligence test (Analysis-Synthesis Test – AST) using confidence ratings (CR). AST performance, the extent to which participants incidentally learnt task-relevant rules (learning rules was unnecessary because they were provided), self-efficacy, and goals, were assessed. The results indicated an effect of performing CR on both performance and rule learning, but the effect depended on self-efficacy. Compared to matched controls (n=45), participants who performed CR (n=41) and had high self-efficacy performed better on the AST but learnt fewer rules. Performing CR had no effect on participants low in self-efficacy. This suggests that self- evaluation interacts with self-efficacy to modify participants’ goals, specifically CR appear to shift individuals high in self-efficacy from a mastery goal to a performance goal.

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