ICAP: How Students Engage to Learn

AbstractICAP is a theory of how students engage with instructional materials, often referred to as "active learning." Engagement has been explored mostly as a motivation construct or assessed by large grain-sized behavioral outcomes, such as the frequency of students' class attendance, or the frequency that they do their homework, and so on. ICAP takes a cognitive approach, and defines cognitive engagement by smaller grain-sized behavioral measures in the context of students' interactions with instructional materials that can be presented either as text passages, teacher lectures, videos of materials, exercises or problems to solve, and other classroom activities. That is, ICAP assumes that the small grain-sized behavioral measures can serve as indicators of cognitive engagement, resulting in differentiated learning outcomes as a function of students' level of engagement.

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