Feedback in the Time-Invariant String Kernel model of spoken word recognition

AbstractThe Time-Invariant String Kernel (TISK) model of spoken word recognition (Hanngan et al., 2013) is an interactive activation model like TRACE (McClelland & Elman, 1986). However, it uses orders of magnitude fewer nodes and connections because it replaces TRACE's time-specific duplicates of phoneme and word nodes with time-invariant nodes based on a string kernel representation (essentially a phoneme-by-phoneme matrix, where a word is encoded as by all ordered open diphones it contains; e.g., cat has /kæ/, /æt/, and /kt/). Hannagan et al. (2013) showed that TISK behaves similarly to TRACE in the time course of phonological competition and even word-specific recognition times. However, the original implementation did not include feedback from words to diphone nodes, precluding simulation of top-down effects. Here, we demonstrate that TISK can be easily adapted to lexical feedback, affording simulation of top-down effects as well as allowing the model to demonstrate graceful degradation given noisy inputs.

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